I. Background of the Project
Sichuan Province is one of the energy-saving generation dispatching trial points determined by the state. Hydropower dispatching plays an important role in energy-saving generation dispatching. Sichuan Province is rich in hydropower resource, with over 700 rivers. Presently, the installed capacity of Sichuan Grid accounts for 70% of the total installed capacity of the system. With promotion of hydropower development, hydropower will account for higher and higher proportion and several cascade hydropower station groups have been and are to be formed. Among them, some rivers are developed by a single body while some and especially some medium and large rivers are developed by multiple bodies and the power stations have large installed capacity and multiple access points. Thus, it needs to further open the mind, shift the view, innovate and establish proper management systems suitable for socialist market-oriented economy for dispatching of cascade hydropower stations in drainage areas so as to coordinate relationship between the cascade hydropower stations in upper and lower streams, solve the conflict between generation and comprehensive utilization of the reservoirs, coordinate the benefit of different development bodies as well as effectively promote and implement dispatching of cascade hydropower stations in drainage areas. Thus, it is full of meaning to study and discuss management mode of dispatching of cascade hydropower stations in drainage areas according to actual situation of Sichuan Province for fully utilizing water resource in drainage areas, generating more high quality and clean renewable energy, reducing consumption of fossil energy and emission of pollutants as well as improving ecological environment.
II. Research Results
We have invested China’s cascade hydropower development and generation dispatching management status and visited domestic hydropower development companies, including the Three Gorges, Wujiang River and the upper stream of the Yellow River, Ertan Hydropower Company and so on. We have discussed with the managers and technicians of these companies for analyzing necessity and feasibility of joint dispatching of cascade hydropower and proposing management mode of dispatching of cascade hydropower.
(1) Joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations is an effective measure for displaying potential of cascade reservoirs and hydropower stations, taking full advantage of hydropower to generate more clean and renewable energy, reducing fossil energy consumption, saving energy and reducing emission. Practices of joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations both home and abroad have proved economic benefits of 2-7%. Meanwhile, it can promote energy conservation and emission reduction. Therefore, it is demand of energy conservation and emission reduction to implement joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations. It is also an important part of China’s energy development strategy.
(2) Joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations is necessary. It is demand of achieving maximum generation benefit and flood control for cascade power stations in the drainage. It is the demand of production and planning management and power system development of enterprises. It is demand of saving production and operating costs and improving work environment for the employees.
(3) Joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations is feasible. The joint dispatching system of cascade hydropower stations has four key subsystems, namely integrated automation system, hydrological forecasting system, water dispatching automation system and communication system. The technology in it is well developed both home and abroad, which sets good foundation equipment for joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations. In addition, after years of hydropower development, the hydropower companies in the drainage areas have a group of high-quality professionals in terms of water level, operation and equipment maintenance, which provides personnel support for joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations.
(1) We have helped Economic and Information Technology Commission of Sichuan Province to issue a decision for optimized dispatching pilot points in Tianwan River and Baoxing River drainage areas and the pilot work has been fully developed. It is a model for other rivers in the province to implement centralized control and dispatching of cascade hydropower stations.
(2) Based on cooperation with the Sichuan Electric Power Company, we have issued Regulations of Sichuan Grid Drainage Centralized Control Center for Network Interconnection. It is full of instructive meaning for construction of Sichuan Grid Control Center for Cascade Hydropower Stations. It speeds up operation of Centralized Control Center for Cascade Hydropower Stations. It also promotes implementation of joint dispatching of cascade hydropower stations in Sichuan grid.
4 Policy Recommendation Details
The hydropower companies should adopt different cascade dispatching model according to their characteristics.
(1) The large drainage areas developed by a single development body may set up centralized control center, which should be responsible for joint dispatching of power stations in the whole basin. The power grid company issues dispatching command to the control center. The control center should complete dispatching of cascade hydropower stations according to instructions. In special circumstances, power grid company (or superior flood control departments) may directly dispatch the administrated power stations instead of through the control center.
The small and medium drainage areas developed by a single development body may set up centralized control center, which should be responsible for dispatching and control of power stations. During dispatching process, the power grid company issues total cascade load curve. The centralized control center should distribute the total load to each power station or even the units. The centralized control center should complete cascade dispatching control according to the load distribution.
（3）As for the drainage areas developed by multiple development bodies, each development body may set up centralized control center for issuing centralized control command to the administrated power stations. It can also establish cascade dispatching management committee for preparing joint dispatching scheme, coordinating interests of the owners and coordinating and communicating with the grid operators so as to display economic and social benefits of the drainage areas in the precondition of ensuring the security and stability of power grid. In special circumstances, power grid company (or superior flood control departments) may directly dispatch the administrated power stations instead of through the control center.
(4) As for small hydropower stations dispatching model, it is recommended to adopt unified dispatching and classification management model. All small hydropower stations connected to the main network should be under unified dispatching of the main network. The provincial power company (provincial dispatching department) should manage the dispatching of small hydropower stations by the local electric power bureaus (local dispatching department). Provincial dispatching department can directly administrate the local dispatching and a few important small hydropower stations. The local dispatching department has electricity dispatching and water dispatching automation systems for direct dispatching of most small hydropower stations connected to the network in the administrative area. The local dispatching department should submit periodical report of dispatching information of small hydropower stations to provincial dispatching department. The local dispatching department and county dispatching department should be responsible for power supply, power grid construction and operation & maintenance of the administrative areas.
Energy Conservancy Objectives and the Study of Analytical Methods in the 12th Five-year Plan Period in Sichuan Province
Interim-term Summary Report
2 Overview of the Project Progress
So far, the project has proceeded smoothly. The project plan and work schedule has been completed on time, and some works are accomplished ahead of time. Since 2000, the study team conducted detailed investigations in the economic development, energy production and consumption of Sichuan Province since 2000. Meanwhile, we have carried out a full and systematic review of the energy conservancy work in the 11th Five-year Plan, summarized the practice and experience in the work, and found out the existing weaknesses and the problems to be solved. Also, according to the trend and status of all industries in Sichuan, relevant national standards and industry development, the energy-saving potentials of all industries during the 12th Five-year Plan Period have been assessed technically, structurally and managerially. On this basis, we have put forward a series of proposals for economic growth and energy conservation and consumption reduction objectives during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, and computed the total volumes of energy conservation in different energy conservation proposals. Finally, by means of analytic hierarchy process, we broke down the objectives of energy conservation for the period of 12th Five-year Plan into all areas when we are constantly optimizing the Decomposition and Index Integrated Evaluation System for Energy Conservation Objectives.
3. Research Results
3.1 Investigation and Analysis of Economic Development As Well As Energy Production and Consumption in Sichuan
Detailed investigation has been carried out for the economic development as well as energy production and consumption after 2000 in Sichuan Province; at the same time, we have analyzed the growth of GDP, tendency of the changes in the three industries, increase in the energy production and consumption, contrast between the energy supply and demand and changes in the energy mix. It is concluded after analysis that the social economy develops very quickly and the GDP keeps rising since 2000. Meanwhile, the contradiction between the energy supply and demand becomes more and more obvious. The supply demand is increasing so quickly that the energy conservation and emission reduction is urgently needed.
3.2 Summary of The Energy Conservation Work for the 11th Five-year Plan Period in Sichuan Province
We have summarized the policies and measures adopted by the provincial government as well as the technical transformation work of the enterprises during the 11th Five-year Plan Period, including the accountability system of the energy conservation objectives, phasing out the sluggish production facilities, controlling the unreasonable growth of the highly polluting and environmentally risky industries, standardizing the energy consumption management, speeding up the recycling industries, etc. In terms of technical transformation, industries such as cement, iron and steel, architecture and ceramics, etc. replaced their outdated equipment with new and advanced techniques, as a result, their energy consumption indicators turn for better compared with those in the 11th Five-year Plan Period.
3.3 Analysis of the Energy Conservation Potential in The Period of 12th Five-year Plan in Sichuan
We have analyzed and calculated the energy conservation potential brought about by technical progress, structural optimization and management strengthening. The analysis of energy conservation by technical means mainly is to forecast the unit consumption level and target output of the 12th Five-year Plan Period based on the recent unit consumption of key products and trend of changes in output in the province, and calculate the potential by using the unit consumption differential value and target output. The analysis of structural energy conservation potential is to freeze the current energy intensity and calculate the potential through the optimization of industrial structure. The analysis of managerial energy conservation potential is focused on the saved energy of management is enhanced in the dispatching of energy efficient power generation, contract energy management and main energy consuming equipment. The analytical results show that there is great energy conservation potential technically, structurally and managerially. In terms of structural energy conservation, particularly, the actual energy saving efficiency is intimately related to the extent of changes in the industrial structure. If the energy work is smoothly proceeding, more achievements will be made in the energy conservation work of the entire province.
3.4 Study of the Energy Conservation Objectives in The Period of 12th Five-year Plan in Sichuan
Based on the analysis of the energy conservation potential in the 12th Five-year Plan period in Sichuan Province, we adopt two methods to calculate the energy objectives for the 12th Five-year Plan period by means of positive and reverse calculations. The positive calculation results show that at the growth rate of 12%, Sichuan can achieve the objective of reducing the energy consumption per GDP by 16%. At the same, in case of the reverse calculation, we should assume the energy objectives first, break down the corresponding accumulative energy saving value into all industries, and then exert effects on the energy objectives in through the development planning of all industries to calculate the energy consumption reduction target per GDP for the 12th Five-year Plan of Sichuan Province is 15%-16%.
3.5 Breakdown of the Energy Conservation Target Areas in The Period of 12th Five-year Plan in Sichuan
Through the hierarchy analysis, we have established the breakdown and integrated assessment system for energy conservation target areas, and defined four tier-2 subject indicators, accountability, capability, potential and difficulty of energy conservation. In the meantime, through the subjective weight method of hierarchy analysis, we give some weight to all tier-3 indicators and calculate the ranking of the tier-2 indicators of 21 prefectures in Sichuan. Furthermore, through the sensitivity analysis, we have calculated the weight number of all tier-2 key indicators in the integrated assessment system, and calculated the comprehensive scoring of all prefectures. At last, based on the energy conservation objective of 16%, we break down the objectives to all prefectures as per the scoring with 12%-18% as the breakdown range, and verified the breakdown results by the cluster analysis method.
3. 6 Compilation of the Report
We have reorganized the investigation and analysis of the economic development as well as energy production and consumption in Sichuan, the review and summarization of the energy conservation work in the 11th Five-year Plan Period, potential analysis for the 12th Five-year Plan Period, study of energy conservation study as well as the breakdown of areas for energy conservation objectives. We have complied Parts 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 of the Study Report of the Energy Conservation Objectives and Breakdown Methods in the Period of 12th Five-year Plan Period in Sichuan Province.
4. Future Work Plan
4.1 Breakdown and Study of The Energy Conservation Target Industries in The Period of 12th Five-year Plan in Sichuan
On the basis of carefully analyzing the tendency of industrial development, we break down the total energy conservation objectives, energy consumption per GDP and other indicators for the 12th Five-year Plan Period into the main industries or sectors of the Province in accordance with the actual practice of the methods of breaking down the target areas, the changes in the conventional industrial structure and technical progress.
4.2 Key Energy Conservation Projects and The Study of Solutions for the 12th Five-year Plan Period in Sichuan
Based on relevant planning and reports, we have defined Sichuan’s key fields and projects for energy conservation in the period of the 12th Five-year Plan, including energy conservation projects in the key industries like metallurgy, chemical industry, electric power, building materials, coal, light textile, etc. and key conservation projects represented by coal-fired industrial boiler (kiln) transformation project, waste heat and pressure utilization project, motor system energy conversation project, regional thermal power combined production project, energy system optimization project, energy conservation monitoring and technical service system project. At the same time, we will go all lengths to ensure the energy conservation work goes smoothly among the 39 Sichuan companies in the campaign of “one thousand enterprises of energy conservation”, 200 companies of “100-company conservation initiative” and major energy users that consume more than 5000 tons of standard coal annually. Finally, we have worked out the solutions to energy conservation of these key projects, and ensure the energy conservation work can be carried out as scheduled through a series of technical, structural and managerial measures.
4.3 Suggestions on the Measures to Realize Energy Conservation Objectives and Policies
On the basis of the aforesaid study, we have brought about reasonable and feasible suggestions to ensure to accomplish the objectives in the 12th Five-year Plan Period based on the actual situation of Sichuan Province. With our experience in the 11th Five-year Plan Period, we should continue to enhance our publicity of energy conservation during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, raise people’s awareness of saving energy, actively promote the industrial structural optimization, shift the economic growth modes and developing the recycling economy. Moreover, we should take advantage if all administrative resources, establish effective tax stimulation policy and set up an energy admission system and a backwardness retreating system. In view that the existing energy statistics and monitoring system is not improved, we should pay special attention to the construction of energy conservation monitoring and service system and intensify the fundamental energy metering and statistics.
4.4 Completion of Project Study Report
We will continue to compile the aforesaid three parts of the report, and amend the previous draft to finalize the Study Report of the Energy Conservation Objectives and Breakdown Methods in the Period of 12th Five-year Plan Period in Sichuan Province and deliver to the expert panel for review and acceptance.