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第八章 :鱼病防治

Chapter VIII: Prevention and Control of Fish Diseases

鱼病对 水产养殖的危害

Harm of Fish Diseases on Aquaculture

  水产动 物病害防治工作是水产养殖业不可分割的一个部分,其经济效益直接体现在水产养殖业本身。忽视病害防治工作或以被动应急的态度对待病害防治工作,将造成养殖业严重滑坡,根据目前养殖规模和病害发生现状估计,病害引起 产业损失可达30%-50%。对病 害防治进行各方面研究与预防,可减少因病害引起的损失一半以上。

      Aquatic animal disease prevention and control is an integral part of aquaculture and its direct economic benefits are embodied in the aquaculture industry itself. Neglect of prevention and treatment of disease or passive attitude towards disease prevention and control will result in serious decline of aquaculture. Based on the current status of breeding and estimation of the size and occurrence of disease, disease may cause industrial loss of up to 30% -50%. Various researches of disease control and prevention can reduce losses due to diseases by more than a half.

  做好疾 病的预防工作是提高水产动物增养殖产量和经济效益的重要措施。

      Effective disease prevention is an important measure to improve the aquaculture production of aquatic animals and increase economic efficiency.

  水产动 物生活在水中,一旦生病人们不易察觉,及时和正确的诊断较困难;

Aquatic animals live in water. It is difficult to detect when they fall ill so that timely and correct diagnosis is more difficult;

  给药困 难:内服药只能水产动物主动吃入;体外用药只适合小水体。

Drug administration difficulties: The medication can only be eaten actively by aquatic animals; and in vitro treatment is only suitable for small waters.

  贯彻全面预 防,积极治疗的方针 ,采取无病防 病,有病早治的积极 方法。

Implementation of the "comprehensive prevention and aggressive treatment" approach and take the positive way of "prevention of disease and early treatment."

第一节  鱼病发 生的原因

Section I      Reasons for Fish Diseases

一、病 原、鱼体、池塘环境三者之间的关系

I.     Relationship among pathogen, fish and pond environment

鱼类是 终生生活在水中的水生动物,鱼类的摄食、呼吸、排泄、生长等一切生命活动均在水中进行,因此水环境对鱼类生存和生长的影响超过任何陆生动物。水中存在的病原体数量较陆地环境要多,水中的各种理化因子(如溶氧 、温度;pH值、无 机三氮等)直接影 响鱼类的存活、生长和疾病的发生。

Fishes are aquatic animals living in the water throughout its lifetime. Fishes perform feeding, respiration, excretion, growth and all other life activities in water. Thus, water environment has greater impact on fish survival and growth than any other land animals. The number of pathogens in water is larger than that in the terrestrial environment. Various physical and chemical factors (such as dissolved oxygen, temperature; pH value, inorganic three nitrogen, etc.) in water directly affect fish survival, growth and diseases.

  体质健 康的鱼类对环境适应能力很强,对疾病也有较强的抵御能力。但在养殖池塘中,由于放养密度的提高(较自然 水域增大几倍甚至几十倍),人工 投饵量的增大,鱼类的排泄量对水体的污染程度增大,使得环境极易恶化,同时疾病的传染机会增大。当环境的恶化,病原体的侵害超过了鱼体的内在免疫能力时,就导致了鱼病的发生。

Physically healthy fish is more adapted to the environment and strong in resilience to diseases. However, in ponds, as stocking density is increased (several times or even several times larger than the natural waters), the amount of artificial feeding and fish excretion on water pollution increase, making the environment easy deterioration. Meanwhile, it is more likely to suffer disease. In case of environmental degradation, if pathogens cause more harm than fish’s inherent immunity, it leads to the occurrence of fish diseases.

二、鱼 病发生的环境因素

II.     Environmental Factors for Occurrence of Fish Diseases 

  ()理化因素 

 (I) Physical and chemical factors

1.物理 因素 主要为 温度和透明度。一般随着温度升高,透明度降低,病原体的繁殖速度加快,鱼病发生率呈上升趋势,但个别喜低温种类的病原体除外,如水霉菌、小型点状极毛杆菌(竖鳞病 病原苗)等。 

Physical factors: temperature and transparency. Generally, with increase of temperature, reduction of transparency and faster propagation of pathogens, the occurrence of fish diseases rises except individual types of pathogens, such as water molds, small point-like very gross bacteria (pathogen vaccine vertical scales) and so on.

2.化学 因素 水化学 指标是水质好坏的主要标志,也是导致鱼病发生的最主要因素。在养殖池塘中主要为溶氧量、 pH值和氨 态氮含量,在溶氧量充足(每升4毫克以上)pH值适宜(7585)、氨态 氮含量较低(每升02毫克以下)时,鱼 病的发生率较低,反之鱼病的发生率高。如在缺氧时鱼体极易感染烂鳃病,pH值低于7时极易 感染各种细菌病,氨态氮高时极易发生暴发性出血病。

Chemical factors: water chemistry indicators are the main indicator of water quality and are also the main factors leading to the occurrence of fish diseases. They mainly refer to dissolved oxygen, pH, and ammonia nitrogen content in pond. When the dissolved oxygen is adequate (more than 4 mg per liter), pH value is suitable (7.5 ~ 8.5), and ammonia nitrogen is low (0.2 mg per liter or less), the occurrence of fish diseases is low, whereas the occurrence of fish diseases is high. In case of hypoxic, fish are easy to infect fin rot, and in case of pH value of below 7, it is very easily to be infected with a variety of bacterial diseases, and in case of high ammonia nitrogen, it is easy to suffer fulminant hemorrhage.

()生物因素  

(II) Biological factors

与鱼病 发生率关系较大的为浮游生物和病原体生物。常将浮游植物含量过多或种类不好(如蓝藻 、裸藻过多)作为水 质老化的标志。这种水体鱼病的发生率较高。病原体生物含量较高时,鱼病的感染机会增加。同时中间寄主生物的数量高低,也直接影响相应疾病(如桡足 类会传播绦虫病)传播速 度。 

Plankton organisms and pathogens are related with fish disease. Too much phytoplankton or bad types of phytoplankton (such as cyanobacteria and algae) are considered as aging of water quality. This kind of water is easy to cause high occurrence of fish diseases. In case of higher level of biological pathogens, fish are easier to suffer increase. Meanwhile, the number of host organism also directly affects spread speed of the corresponding diseases (such spread of taeniasis by copepods).

 

  ()人为因素  

(III) Human factors

在精养 池塘,人为因素的加入大大加速了鱼病的发生,如放养密度过大、大量投喂人工饲料、机械性操作等,都使鱼病的发生率大幅度提高,所以精养池塘的鱼病发生率高,防病、治病工作也更为重要

In intensive ponds, man-made factors greatly accelerate the occurrence of fish diseases. For example, too large stocking density, a large number of artificial diets, mechanical operation and etc. may substantially increase occurrence of fish diseases. Thus, the intensive pond suffers high occurrence of fish diseases. Thus, disease prevention and treatment becomes more important.

 

  ()池塘条件  

(IV) Pond conditions

主要指 池塘大小和底质。一般较小的池塘温度和水质变化都较大,鱼病的发生率较大池塘为高。底质为草炭质的池塘pH值一般 较低,有利于病原体的繁殖,鱼病的 发生率较高。底泥厚的池塘,病原体含量高,有毒有害的化学指标一般也较高,因而也容易发生鱼病。

It mainly refers to the size and pond sediment. Generally, small ponds suffer great changes in temperature and water quality, and the occurrence of fish disease is higher than large ponds. The ponds with turfy sediment generally have low pH values so that it is conducive to the propagation of pathogens so as to result in higher occurrence of fish diseases. Thick-sediment ponds have high levels of pathogens, toxic and hazardous chemical indicators so that they are generally more likely to suffer fish disease.

 

三、发 病鱼的体质因素

III.    Physical Factors for Occurrence of Fish Diseases 

  鱼的体 质是鱼病发生的内在因素,是鱼病发生的根本原因,主要为品种和体质。一般杂交的品种较纯种抗病力强,当地品种较引进品种抗病力强。体质好的鱼类各种器官机能良好对疾病的免疫力、抵抗力都很强,鱼病的发生率较低。鱼 类体质也与饲料的营养密切相关,当鱼类的饲料充足,营养平衡时,体质健壮,较少得病,反之鱼的体质较差,免疫力降低,对各种病原体的抵御能力下降,极易感染而发病。同时在营养不均衡时,又可直接导致各种营养性疾病 的发生,如瘦脊病、塌鳃病、脂肪肝等。

Fish body status is intrinsic physical factor for fish disease and is the root cause of fish disease. It mainly refers to species and physical status. Hybrid species are stronger in resistance to diseases than the pure species, and the local species are stronger in it than the introduced species. Physically good fish have good function of various organs and are strong in immunity and resistance to disease so that the occurrence of fish diseases is low. Fish’s physical status is also closely related with the feed nutrition. When fish are fed with adequate feed with balanced nutrition, they suffer less disease, or fish are weak in ability to withstand a variety of pathogens and are most susceptible to infection of disease. At the same time imbalanced nutrition will also a directly result in a variety of nutritional diseases, such as thin spinal diseases, collapsed gill disease, fatty liver and so on.

 

第二节  鱼病的 检查和诊断

Section II Examination and Diagnosis of Fish Diseases

  一、现 场调查

I.    Field investigation

  ()了解鱼 出现的各种异常现象

(I) To understand a variety of abnormalities of fish

鱼生病 后,不仅在病鱼体表或体内出现各种病状,同时,在水中也会表现出各种异常现象。如全身发黑、离群独游;在气候等一切正常的情况下,鱼的摄食量突然急剧下降等。鱼病发生往往有急性型和慢性型。急性型鱼病,病鱼一般在 体色、外观和体质上与正常鱼差别不大,仅病变部位稍有变化,但一经出现死亡,死亡率急剧上升。而慢性型鱼病,则往往体质消瘦、活动缓慢、体色发黑、离群独游,死亡率一般呈缓慢上升趋势。鱼类受到寄生虫侵袭时,往往 出现焦躁不安。

When fishes are sick, various symptoms emerge on fish body surface. Meanwhile, water will demonstrate a variety of abnormalities, such as black body and traveling alone. In normal climate and all normal circumstances, the fish’s food intake suffers sudden and sharp fall. Fish diseases are divided into acute type and chronic type. In case of acute-type diseases, sick fish are not very different with the normal fish in body color, appearance and physical status, only a slight change in the lesion. In the event of death, the death rate increases dramatically. In case of chronic type diseases, fish are often physical weight loss, activity is slow, the body color is black, and they travel alone, with the mortality rate generally slowly rising. Invasion by parasites, they often appear restless.

 

如鱼鲺 侵袭,鱼的体色等变化不大,但鱼出现上跳下窜,阵性狂游。当鲢碘泡虫侵袭白鲢时,鱼的尾部上翘露出水面,在水中狂游乱窜打圈子。因农药或工业污水排放造成鱼类中毒时,鱼会出现跳跃和冲撞现象,一般在较短时间内就转 入麻痹甚至死亡。由寄生虫引起的死亡,一般是缓慢的逐渐增加,除集约化养殖发现指环虫、三代虫的侵袭在短期内造成大批死亡外,池塘养鱼死亡率一般不会太大;可是若遇鱼类中毒,则往往在极短的时间内,出现大批鱼类死 亡,而且不分品种都毫不例外地死亡。因此,及时到现场观察鱼的活动情况对于鱼病的及时诊断和处理具有至关重要的意义。

In case of invasion of fish louse, fish suffer little change in color, but they will jump up and down crazily. When Myxobolus drjagini attacks silver carp, the tail of fish will turn up out of the water, swim in the water in circle crazily. In case of fish poisoning due to pesticides or industrial discharges, fish will show jumping and collision phenomena. Generally, in a relatively short period of time, they will suffer paralysis or even death. Death caused by parasites is generally slowly increased. Except death caused by Dactylogyrus and Gyrodactylus invasion, generally the death rate will not be too high. However, in case of fish poisoning, in a very short period of time, there will be a large number of fish killed, regardless of species. Therefore, timely observation of the activities of fish in site is of vital importance for fish disease diagnosis and timely treatment.

 

  ()了解水 质和环境情况

(II) To understand water quality and environmental conditions

水温与 鱼病的流行有密切的关系,各种病原体都有其繁育生长的最佳温度范围。很多致病菌和病毒在平均水温 25左右时 ,毒力显著增高,水温降到20以下时 ,则毒力减弱,使病情减弱或停止。斜管虫适宜在水温1218C时大量 繁殖。小瓜虫生长和繁殖的水温,一般在1525C,当水 温低于10C以下或 高于26时,则 停止发育。观察水的颜色,对水质情况也可作一大致了解。水中腐殖质多时,水呈褐色;水中含钙质多时,呈现天蓝色;微囊藻大量繁殖时,水呈铜绿色;城市排出的生活污水,一般呈黑色;当被污染水源污染时,因污水种类和 性质不同而出现不同的颜色,如红、黑、灰白色等,透明度也会随之大大降低。

Water temperature and fish disease prevalence are closely related. The growth of various pathogens has its optimum growth temperature range. For many kinds of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, at average temperature of around 25, the toxicity is significantly increased. When the water temperature drops below 20, then virulence is reduced, and the disease condition is reduced or stopped. Chilodonella’s suitable water temperature is 12 ~ 18C. Ichthyophthirius growth and reproduction water temperature is 15 ~ 25C. When the water temperature is lower than 10 or above 26 , then growing will stop. Observe the color of water to know about the water quality conditions. In case of much humus in water, water is brown; when water contains much calcium, it shows sky-blue color; in case of much Microcystis, water is aeruginous. Urban sewage is generally black. When contaminated by contamination source, there are different colors due to sewage type and different nature, such as red, black, gray and etc.. Transparency will also be greatly reduced.

 

  水中的 溶解氧、硫化氢、pH值、氯 化物、硫化物等与鱼病流行的关系极为密切。有的鱼池数年不清塘,有的网箱长年摆设于一个地方,鱼的粪便和残饵大量沉积,当水底溶氧量减少时,嫌气微生物发酵分解产生硫化氢,不仅容易使鱼类中毒,而且更加剧了溶氧的 缺乏,造成鱼类浮头或窒息死亡。有机质多而水质发臭的水,一般都适宜鳃霉的大量繁殖,引起鳃霉病的流行。酸性水常引起嗜酸性卵甲藻病的暴发。氯化物和硬度高,则会促使小三毛金藻大量繁殖,造成鱼类中毒死亡。

Dissolved oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH, chlorides and sulfides are related with the fish diseases. Some ponds are not cleared for several years, and some cages are placed in the same place for many years so that a large number of bait fish feces will deposit. When dissolved oxygen is reduced, fish will suffer anoxia or even death. Water with many organic matters and smelly water are suitable for reproduction of gills so as to cause branchiomycosis. Acidic water often causes eosinophilic eggs dinoflagellate disease. High content of chloride and hardness will encourage reproduction of small Primnesium saltans, causing fish poisoning and even death.

 

  了解周 围的环境中是否存在污染源或流行病的传播源,鱼池周围的环境卫生,家畜、家禽、鸟类、螺蚌及其敌害动物在渔场内的数量和活动情况等,特别对一些急剧的大量死鱼现象,尤其需要了解附近农田施药情况和附近厂矿排放污水 情况,在工业污水和农药中,尤以酚、重金属盐类、氰化物、酸、碱、有机磷农药、有机氯和有机砷等对鱼类危害较大。一旦确诊为中毒死亡,应迅速了解施药的种类或污水中的主要致死化学成分,以便采取应急措施。

We should understand the surrounding environment, to make sure the existence of sources of pollution or epidemic spread source, pond surrounding sanitation, number and activities of livestock, poultry, birds, snail mussels and their predators. Especially, for some sharp dead phenomenon, we need to understand the situation around the factories discharge of sewage. In terms of industrial wastewater and pesticides, we should pay special attention to phenol, heavy metal salts, cyanides, acids, alkalis, organic pesticides, organic chlorine and organic arsenic and other harmful matters. In case of diagnosis of poisoning, we should quickly understand the type of pesticide or main lethal chemical composition in sewage so as to take emergent measures.

 

二、病 鱼的检查

II.     Examination of Fish Disease  

  ()鱼体的 肉眼检查 

(I) Visual inspection of fish

鱼体的 肉眼检查,简称目检。在实际生产中,目检是检查鱼病的主要方法之一。目检可以观察到病原体侵袭机体后机体表现出的各种症状,对于某些症状表现明显的疾病,有经验的技术人员凭借经验即可作出初步诊断。另外,一些大型 病原体如较大的寄生虫,肉跟也可观察到。

Visual inspection of fish is referred to as visual inspection. In actual production, visual inspection is one of the main methods to check fish diseases. Visual inspection can observe the symptoms of the body after pathogen invasion. For some diseases with obvious symptoms, the experienced technical staff can make preliminary diagnosis by visual inspection. In addition, some large pathogens such as large parasites can also be observed by eyes.

 

  一般病 毒性和细菌性鱼病,通常表现出充血、发炎、腐烂、脓肿、蛀鳍、竖鳞等。鱼类致病病毒和致病菌的确定,需要较为复杂的设备和具有专业技术的人员鉴定,同时,致病菌的培养和鉴定也需要较长的时间,因此在生产实际中,通 常是排除寄生虫类鱼病后,根据病鱼表现出的症状,大致确定为某种类型的鱼病。 

General viral and bacterial fish diseases often show congestion, inflammation, decay, abscess, bore fins, vertical scales and so on. Fish pathogenic viruses and bacteria can be determined by sophisticated equipment and professional technical personnel. At the same time, cultivation and identification of pathogenic bacteria also requires a longer time. Thus, in actual production, after the parasite is usually excluded, according to the symptoms of diseases, type of fish diseases can be roughly defined.

 

  寄生虫 引起的鱼病,常表现出粘液过多、出血、羽点状或块状的孢囊等,根据寄生部位和所引起的症状不同,有的凭肉眼即可作出较为准确的诊断。对鱼体的检查,主要检查体表、鳃、内脏三部分。检查顺序和方法如下:

Parasites fish diseases often show excessive mucus, blood, feather cysts dot or block, etc.. According to parasite location and different symptoms, some can be accurately diagnosed by naked eyes. As for inspection of fish, it mainly refers to inspection of the body surface, gills and internal organs. Check order and method are as follows:

 

  1.体表 将病鱼 置于白搪瓷盘中,按顺序从嘴、头部、鳃部、体表、鳍条仔细观察。寄生于体表的线虫、锚头鳋、鱼鲺、钩介幼虫、水霉等大型病原体,很容易被观察确定。但很多用肉眼看不出来的小型病原体,则主要根据表现出来的症状加以 辨别,口丝虫、车轮虫、斜管虫、三代虫等引起的病状,一般会分泌大量粘液,有时微带污泥,或者是嘴、头以及鳍条末端腐烂,但鳍条基部一般不充血。

Surface: the sick fish will be placed in white enamel plate and inspected in order from the mouth, head, gills and body surface to fins carefully. Parasitic nematodes, lernaea, fish louse, glochidium, water mold and other large pathogens on the surface can easily be observed and determined. However, a lot of small pathogens that can not be seen by the naked eyes are mainly identified based on the presented symptoms. The symptoms caused by ichthyobodo, trichodina, chilodonella and gyrodactylus usually show a lot of mucus, and sometimes with a little sludge or the mouth, head and fins end rotted but the fin base generally does not suffer congestion.

 

  疖疮病 则表现为病变部位发炎、脓肿。白皮病病变部位发白,粘液少,用手摸有粗糙感。复口吸虫表现出眼球混浊,后期出现白内障。但有些病症,如鳍条基部充血和蛀鳍,则都是赤皮病、肠炎、烂鳃病以及其他一些细菌性鱼病的病症 之一;大量的车轮虫、斜管虫、小瓜虫、指环虫等寄生虫寄生于鱼的体表或鳃上,同样都会刺激鱼体分泌较多的粘液。因此;除了根据病鱼症状,还应根据病原体的生活习性和条件、主要选择宿主等综合分析考虑。

Furunculosis is manifested in lesion inflammation and abscess. Leukoderma shows white lesion location, less mucus and rough sense of touch. Diplostomum shows eye fluke and late cataract. However, some symptoms such as congestion and moth fin are one of symptoms for red-skin disease, enteritis, gill rot and other bacterial diseases. If a lot of trichodina, chilodonella, ichthyophthirius, dactylogyriasis and other parasites on the body surface or gills of fish, it will also stimulate fish to secret more mucus. So, in addition to the symptoms of sick fish, we should also consider the living habits and conditions of pathogen, main host and so on.

2.鳃 检查鳃 部,重点是鳃丝。先看鳃盖是否张开,然后用剪刀小心把鳃盖剪掉,观察鳃片上鳃丝是否肿大或腐烂,鳃的颜色是否正常,粘液是否增多等。

Gills: Check the gills, with emphasis on the gill filaments. Check whether the gill cover is open, then use scissors to carefully cut the gill cover to observe whether gill filaments are swelling or rotted, whether gill color is normal and whether mucus is increased.

 

如果是 细菌性烂鳃病,则鳃丝末端腐烂,严重的病鱼鳃盖内中间部分的内膜常腐蚀成一个不规则的圆形小窗;若是 鳃霉病,则鳃片颜色发白,略带微红色小点;若是车轮虫;斜管虫、鳃隐鞭虫、指环虫、三代虫等寄生虫引起的鱼病,鳃片上则会有较多粘液;若是中华鳋、双身虫、狭腹鳋、粘孢子虫孢囊等寄生虫,则常表现为鳃丝肿大,鳃盖 胀开等症状;小瓜虫、孢子虫大量寄生时,肉眼即可见大量白点,因此常被称为白点病

In case of bacterial gill rot disease, the end of gill filament will rot and for seriously sick fish, tunica intima in middle of gill cover often rots into irregular circular "small window". In case of gill mold, the gill color will be white, with some reddish dots. In case of diseases caused by trichodina, chilodonella, C.branchialis, Dactylogyrus and Gyrodactylus and other parasites, gill will have more mucus. In case of Sinergasilus, Diplozoidae, Lamproglena, Myxosporidia and other parasites, it usually shows swollen gills and open gill cover and other symptoms. In case of a lot of Ichthyophthirius and Cryptosporidium, the naked eyes can see a lot of white spots, so it is often known as the "white-spot disease."

 

  3.内脏 检查内 脏时,应先把一边的腹壁剪掉,剪腹壁时注意不损伤内脏。先观察是否有腹水或肉眼可见的较大型的寄生虫。其次是观察内脏的外表,如肝脏的颜色、胆囊是否肿大以及肠道是否正常,然后将靠近咽喉部位的前肠和靠近肛门部位 的后肠剪断,取出内脏后,把肝、肠、鳔、胆等分开,再把肠分为前肠、中肠、后肠三段,轻轻去掉肠道中的食物和粪便,然后进行观察。绦虫、吸虫、线虫等比较大的寄生虫,很容易就能看到;如果是肠炎,则会发现肠壁发炎 、充血;如果是球虫病和粘孢子虫病,则肠道中一般有较大型的瘤状物,切开瘤状物有乳白色浆液或者肠壁上有成片或稀散的小白点。

Visceral organs: when we check the visceral organs, we should first cut one abdominal wall, without damaging visceral organs. First, we should see if there is ascites or visible large parasites. Then, we should observe the appearance of internal organs, such as the color of the liver, whether gallbladder is swelling and whether intestines are normal. Then, cut foregut near the throat and hindgut near the anus, remove the internal organs, put the liver, intestines, bladder and gallbladder separately, and then divide intestines into the foregut, midgut and hindgut, gently remove food and feces in the intestines, and then observe. Tapeworms, flukes, nematodes and other relatively large parasites are easy to see. In case of colitis, intestinal inflammation and congestion will be found; in case of coccidiosis and Myxosporidiosis, there will be generally large nodule in the gut and milky white slurry in the nodule or white points scattered on the intestine wall.

 

()鱼病的 镜检 

(II) Microscopy of Fish Diseases

用显微 镜、解剖镜、放大镜对鱼病进行检查,简称镜检。镜检是在鱼病情况比较复杂,仅凭肉眼检查不能作出正确诊断而作的更进一步的检查工作。在一般情况下,鱼病往往错综复杂,很多病原体又小,除一些较明显、情况又较简单, 凭目检可以作出有把握的诊断外,一般都有必要进行镜检。

Checking fish disease by microscope, dissection microscope and magnifier is referred to as the microscopy. Microscopy is the further inspection in case that fish disease situation is more complex and that visual inspection alone can not make the correct diagnosis. In general, fish diseases are often complex, and many pathogens are small. In addition to some obvious and simple situation that can be determined by visual inspection, in general, there is a need for microscopy.

 

  1、检查 时应注意的事项:

Matters needing attention for inspection:

(1)要用活 的病鱼或刚死的病鱼进行检查。由于鱼死亡后,寄生虫很快随之死去,寄生于鱼体的病原体又非常微小,死后往往很快改变形状或腐烂分解,因此时间稍长就很难确定其病原体。

We should use live sick fish or just-dead sick fish for check. As the fish die, the parasites die soon, and pathogens in fish are very small and often soon decompose or changes in shape after death of. Thus, it is difficult to determine the pathogen after a long time.

(2)取样时 要保持病鱼鱼体湿润。因鱼体干燥后,寄生在病鱼体表的寄生虫会同时被干掉,甚至连病鱼的症状也会变得不明显或无法辨认。因此,应将病鱼装在带有原饲养水的桶或盆里拿出检查。

We should keep the sick fish moist. When fish dry, the parasite on the surface of fish will also dry, and even the symptoms of sick fish will become not obvious or illegible. Therefore, sick fish should be kept in original feeding-water bucket or bowl.

 

  2.检查 方法

Inspection methods

(1)载玻片法 适用于 低倍镜或高倍显微镜检查。方法是取下一小块病灶组织或一小滴内含物,放在干净的载玻片上,滴入一小滴清水或盐水,盖上盖玻片,轻轻地压平,先在低倍显微镜下检查,分辨不清或可疑的可再用高倍镜检查。

Slide method: it is suitable for low magnification or high-powered microscope. The method is as follows: removing a small piece of tumor tissue or a small drop of inclusion on a clean slide, dropping a small drop of fresh water or salt water, covering it with slide, gently flattening it, first observing by low magnification microscope, and then observing for confusion or suspicious situation by high-powered microscope.

(2)玻片压 缩法·用两片 厚度约为34毫米, 大小约6 x12厘米的 玻片,先将要检查的组织或者是器官的一部分以及粘液等,放在其中一片玻片上,滴上适量的清水或盐水(注意体 表部分或粘液用普通水,体内器官或组织用056%的盐水),用另 一片玻片将其压成透明的薄层,即可放到解剖镜或低倍显微镜下检查。

slide compression method: it mainly includes steps as follows: taking two about 3 to 4 mm thick slides with the size of about 6 x12 cm, first placing part of an organ or tissue and mucus on one slide, dropping proper amount of water or salt water (Note: ordinary water for body surface or mucus, and 0.56% salt water for the organs or tissues), pressing it into transparent thin layer with the other slide, and then placing it under dissection microscope or high-powered microscope for observation.

 

  3.应该 重点检查的组织器官 鱼的各 个组织器官、血液都可能有病原体的寄生,但在生产实践中,特别应该重点检查的部位是粘液、鳍条、鳃、肠胃、肝脏。

We should focus on examination of tissues and organs. All fish tissues and organs and blood may have parasitic pathogens. In the production practice, in particular, we should focus on examination of mucus, fins, gills, stomach and liver.

(1)粘液 在鱼的 体表粘液中,除了肉眼可见的较大型的寄生虫和病症外,往往有许多肉眼看不见的病原体,如颤动隐鞭虫、口丝虫、车轮虫以及吸虫囊蚴等,粘孢子虫和小瓜虫的孢囊肉眼也不易区分。在检查时,先用解剖刀刮取鱼体表的粘液, 然后按照镜检方法将粘液放到显微镜或解剖镜下观察。

Mucus: in the fish body surface mucus, in addition to large visible parasites and disease symptoms, there are many invisible pathogens, such as C.agitata, ichthyobodo, trichodina , Myxosporidia and Ichthyophthirius cysts are difficult to distinguish visually. In inspection, first we should scrap fish mucus, and then place mucus under the microscope or dissection microscope for observation.

 

  (2) 检查鳃 ,可先用剪刀剪取一小片鳃组织,放在载玻片上,滴入适量的清水,盖上盖玻片在显微镜下观察;然后刮取鳃片上的粘液或可疑物,同样按上述方法进行检查。鱼的鳃是特别容易被病原体侵袭寄生的部位,细菌或寄生虫性.烂鳃 、鳃霉、鳃隐鞭虫、粘孢子虫、微孢子虫、肤孢虫、车轮虫、斜管虫、小瓜虫、半眉虫、舌杯虫、毛管虫等原生动物,指环虫、三代虫、双身虫等单殖吸虫,复殖吸虫囊蚴,软体动物的幼虫以及鳋类等,在鳃上往往都会寄生。为 了检查的准确性,每边的鳃至少要检查两片以上,取鳃组织时,最好从每一边鳃的第一片鳃片接近两端的位置剪取一小块,寄生虫大多在鳃小片的这两个位置上有寄生。

Gills: Check the gills, including steps as follows: first clipping a small piece of gill tissue with scissors, placing it on slide, dropping proper amount of water, covering the slide and placing it under the microscope; then scraping gill mucus or suspicious material and checking in the same method as above. Gills of fish are particularly vulnerable to pathogen invasion, and bacteria or parasites, gill mold, gill Cryptobia, Myxosporidia, microsporidia, dermocystidiosis, Trichodina, chilodonella, ichthyophthirius, dactylogyriasis, Hemiophrys sp., Ambiphrya, Trichophrya, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus, Diplozoidae, mollusk larvae and Ergasilus etc. are often parasitic on the gills. In order to check the accurately, gills on each side should be at least checked twice or more. At the time of taking gill tissue, it is better to clip a small piece from the location of the first gill of each side, and mostly parasites are on these two positions.

(3)肠胃 检查肠 胃,首先应把肠道外壁上所有的脂肪组织尽量去除干净,不然在检查时,脂肪进入肠道内的检查物,不易进行观察。脂肪去除后,一般是先进行肉眼检查,观察肠道外型是否正常,若肠道外壁上有许多小白点,通常是粘孢子虫或 微孢子虫的孢囊。肉眼检查完后,一般是将肠道分为前肠、中肠和后肠三段,分别进行检查。胃肠道也是最容易受细菌和寄生虫侵袭的地方。除了引起肠炎的细菌外,其他很多寄生虫如鞭毛虫、变形虫、粘孢子虫、微孢子虫、球 虫等原生动物以及复殖吸虫、线虫、棘头虫、绦虫等都可经常发现,有时数量还相当大。复殖吸虫、绦虫、线虫和棘头虫,通常寄生在前肠()或中肠 ;六鞭毛虫、变形虫、肠袋虫等,一般寄生在后肠近肛门36厘米的 地方。

Stomach: first, removing all the fatty tissue on outside wall of intestinal tract, or in inspection, the fat will enter into the gut so as not easy to observe. After removal of fat, generally visual inspection is done first to observe whether the intestinal appearance is normal. If the intestinal wall has many white spots, they are usually Myxosporidia or microsporidia cysts. After visual inspection, the gut is generally divided into foregut, midgut and hindgut respectively to be checked. Gastrointestinal tract is the most susceptible to bacteria and parasites attack. In addition to bacteria that may cause enteritis, we may also find many other parasites such as Giardia, amoeba, Myxosporidia, microsporidia, coccidia and other protozoas and Digenea trematodes, nematodes, thornheaded worms, tapeworms, etc.. Sometimes the number is still quite large. Digenea trematodes, tapeworms, nematodes and thornheaded worms usually are parasitic in foregut (stomach) or midgut; and hexamitiade, amoeba and Balantidium are usually 3 to 6 cm away from the anus of hindgut.

 

检查时 除了注意发现较大型的寄生虫和在肠液中生活的寄生虫外,还应注意肠内壁上有无白色点状物或瘤状物,有无溃烂发红发紫的现象。如果有小白点,压破其孢囊,往往可以看到大量的粘孢子虫,有时也会是微孢子虫。青鱼肠里溃 烂或有白色瘤状物,往往是球虫的大量寄生。如果发红发紫,则一般是细菌性肠炎。

In addition to large parasites and parasites in the intestinal fluid, we should also pay attention to whether there are white points or nodules in internal intestinal wall and whether there is ulceration or red-hot phenomenon. If there are white spots, by crushing the cyst, we can often see a lot of Myxosporida and sometimes microsporidia. In case that Mylopharyngodon ntestinal tract suffers ulcer or white nodules, there are often a large number of coccidia parasites. In case of the red-hot phenomenon, it is generally bacterial enteritis.

 

  (4)肝脏 检查肝 脏,同样先用肉眼观察,注意肝脏的颜色与正常鱼有无明显变化,有无溃烂、病变、白色和肿瘤等。在肝的表面,有时可发现复殖吸虫的孢囊或虫体,有的则有粘孢子虫、微孢子虫或球虫形成的孢囊的小白点。将外表观察完后, 从肝上取少许组织,放在载玻片上,盖上盖玻片,轻轻压平,先在低倍镜下观察,然后再用高倍镜观察,通常在病鱼肝脏上可发现粘孢子虫,微孢子虫等的孢子或胞囊,有时还有吸虫的囊蚴。

Liver: first, observing with the naked eyes whether the color of the liver suffers significant change from the normal fish and whether there is ulceration, lesions, white spots and tumors. On the liver surface, sometimes we can find Paragonimus cysts or parasites and even Myxosporida, Microsporidia or Coccidia cyst white points. After observation of the appearance, taking a little tissue from the liver on the slide, covering it with cover-glass, gently flattening it, first observing it by low-powered microscope and then by high-powered microscope. Usually, in the liver of diseased fish, Myxosporida and Microsporidia cysts can be found and sometimes even Ichthyophthirius cysts.

 

()鱼病的 诊断

(III) Diagnosis of Fish Diseases

  在现场 调查、目检、镜检的基础上,对鱼病的原因进行综合分析,往往才能作出最后的准确诊断。在判明鱼病的原因时,除了症状很明显的外,一般还应注意是由单一病因引起的还是由多种病因引起的,若是单纯感染,则病因明确;若 是混合感染,则应根据病原体的种类、数量、部位等确定主要病因,只有找出了主要病因,有针对性地制定出有效的防治措施,对鱼病的治疗才会收到立竿见影的效果。 

Comprehensive analysis based on field investigation, visual inspection and microscopic examination can often make the final accurate diagnosis. In identifying the reasons for fish diseases, in addition to obvious symptoms, we should also pay attention to the issue whether it is caused by a single cause or by a variety of causes, and in case of simple infection, the cause is clear; and in case of mixed infection, we should determine the main cause according to type, quantity, location and of the pathogens. Only when we find out the main causes and develop effective prevention measures, treatment of fish diseases will receive immediate results.

 

第三节  鱼病的 防治方法

Section III     Methods for Prevention and Control of Fish Diseases 

  一、加 强精养池塘的水质管理

I.    Strengthening water quality management of intensive pond

水质好 坏直接影响鱼类的健康与生长及饲料的利用率,因此充分认识池塘水环境的特性并加强科学管理,围绕着增氧和降氨这一核心问题做好水质调节工作非常必要。主要措施如下

Water quality directly affects fish’s health and growth and feed utilization rate, so we should fully understand the characteristics of pond water environment and strengthen scientific management as well as do well in water quality regulation in terms of oxygen increase and ammonia reduction. The main measures are as follows:

  1、清除 池塘底过多的淤泥、

Removing excess sludge at bottom of pond,

2、定期 泼洒生石灰(ph值偏低时)

Regularly splashing quicklime (when ph value is low).

3 高温季 节晴天的中午开动增氧机,减少底 层氧债,改善池水溶氧状况.

Starting aerator to reduce the underlying oxygen shortage at sunny noon in hot seasons so as to improve dissolved oxygen in water.

4 水质过 肥时用硫酸铜等药物适当杀死部分藻类,加注新水。

When the water is too fatty, killing some algae by copper sulfate and other appropriate drugs, and filling fresh water.

5、在高 握季节、高产池塘,定期施入底质改良剂,改善水质。 

In high-temperature seasons, regularly applying substrate ameliorant into the high-yield ponds so as to improve water quality.

6、利用 光合作用改良水质,

Improving water quality by photosynthesis.

二、提 高鱼体的抗病力

II.     Improving disease resistance of fish

一要根 据池塘条件和技术水平,制定合理的放养密度;二要根据天气、水质和鱼的生长活动情况,定时定量投喂,保证鱼吃饱吃好;三要选择配方科学、营养均衡的优质全价颗粒饲料投喂,避免鱼体发生营养性疾病;四要加强日常管理 及细心操作,要勤巡塘;发现问题及时解决,做好池塘日记;五要选择抗病力强的优良品种饲养。

First, according to the conditions of pond and technical level, developing a reasonable stocking density; second, depending on the weather, water quality and fish growth and activity, performing quantitative feeding at a fixed time to ensure that the fish eat well; third, choosing scientific formula and nutritionally balanced high-quality composition feed grains to avoid the occurrence of nutritional diseases of fish; Fourth, strengthening the daily management and careful operation and regular pond inspection, and in case of identifying problems, promptly resolving them and keeping pond diary; and fifth, choosing good feed with strong disease resistance capability.

 

三、控 制和杀灭病原体 

III.    Controlling and killing of pathogens

  1、苗种 检疫 对购进 苗种要检疫。

Fish seed quarantine: all purchased fish seeds should be quarantined.

2、清塘 对鱼塘 要彻底清整消毒。 

Cleaning the pond: fish ponds should be cleaned and disinfected thoroughly.

3、鱼体 消毒 春片鱼 种入池时用药液浸泡鱼体,可有效杀灭鱼体表和鳃上的寄生虫和细菌。

Fish disinfection: before fish seeds are placed into the pond, they should be soaked with disinfection liquid, which can effectively kill the gill parasites and bacteria on the fish surface and gills.

4、粪肥 消毒;有机肥应消毒后再施。消毒可用生石灰、漂白粉等药物。

Manure disinfection: organic fertilizer should not be applied before disinfection. Quicklime, bleaching powder and other drugs can be used for disinfection.

5、生长 旺季定期预防  生长旺 季采取料台挂袋或定期泼洒杀菌药可有效预防细菌性鱼病。采用此方法应注意以下问题:一是食场周围的药物浓度应达到有效治疗浓度,又不能影响鱼类摄食。二是食场周围的药物的一定浓度应保持1小时以 上。三是必须连续挂袋或泼药35天;生长旺 季,定期投喂杀菌药饵,可有效地预防各种细菌性鱼病;药饵量计算应把吃食鱼体重全部计算入内,投药饵量可比平时减少10%~20%,一 般连续喂3天。

Regular prevention in growth peak seasons: hanging the bag or regular spilling of bactericidal drugs in peak seasons can be effective in preventing bacterial fish diseases. In case of this method, we should pay attention to the following questions: First, the drug concentration around the food site should achieve effective therapeutic concentration, without affecting the fish’s feeding. Second, the drug concentration around the food site should be kept for more than 1 hour. Third, we must continuously hang the bag or pour medicine for 3 to 5 days; in growth peak seasons, regular feeding of sterilization bait can be effective in the prevention of bacterial fish diseases. Bait calculation should consider the total weight of the fish, and the dosage can be reduced by 10% to 20% than usual amount for continuous 3 days.

第四节  用药方 法与用药量

Section IV Method and Dosage of Medication 

  一、常 见的用药方法

I.    Common medication method

鱼池施 药应根据鱼病的病情、养鱼品种、饲养方式、施药目的(是治疗 还是预防鱼病)来选择 不同的用药方法。主要用药方法有以下六种:

Different treatment methods should be chosen according to the condition of fish diseases, fish species, feeding mode and spraying purposes (treatment or prevention of fish diseases). The main medication methods include the following six:

  ()全池泼 洒法 

(I) All-pond spraying method

是池塘 防治鱼病的最常用方法。它是将整个池塘的水体作为施药对象,在正确计算水量的前提下,选择适宜的施药浓度来计算用药量,然后把称量好的药品用水稀释,均匀泼洒到整个池塘的水体,以治疗鱼病。消毒水体比较全面、彻底 ,缺点是成本较高。所以多应用于高产精养池塘,低产池一般在发生严重鱼病时才使用此方法,而且多使用较廉价的药物。 

It is the most common method for prevention and control of fish diseases for pond culture. It takes the whole pond water as the object. Under the premise of calculating the correct amount of water, choose the appropriate pesticide concentration to calculate the dosage, and then dilute weighed drugs with water to evenly sprinkle throughout the pond for treatment of fish diseases. Disinfection is comprehensive and thorough, but disadvantage is high cost. Therefore, it is generally used for high-yield intensive ponds. Low-yield ponds generally use cheaper drugs except in the event of serious fish diseases.

  ()挂袋法

(II) Bag-hanging method

即在投 饵台前25米呈半 圆形区域悬挂药袋46个,内 装药量以1天之内 溶解,不影响鱼前来吃食为原则,可用粗布缝制药袋或直接将小塑料袋包装的药品扎上小眼悬挂使用。此法适用于驯化投喂池塘,防治吃食性鱼类的鱼病,但鱼病后期吃食不好时不宜使用。其优点是节省用药成本,操作方便,对 水体的污染小。 

4 to 6 medicine bags are hung in 2 to 5 meters of semi-circular area before feeding stage, the drugs in the bags are dissolved within 1 day, without affecting the fish’s feeding. Bags can be made by coarse cloth or we can directly hang the small plastic bag of drugs by making some small holes. This method is suitable for domestication feeding ponds for prevention and control of fish diseases, but it should not be used later when fish are bad in feeding. The advantage is low drug cost, easy operation and low pollution to water.

  ()浸洗法 

 (III) Immersion method

即在1个容器内(一般用 大塑料盆或搪瓷浴盆)配制较 高浓度的药液,然后将鱼放入容器内浸洗一定时间后捞出,能杀灭体表和鳃上的病原体。其浸洗时间视鱼类品种、药物种类、浓度、温度灵活掌握。此方法的优点是作用强,疗效高,节省用药量。缺点是不能随时进行,只有在鱼 种分池、转塘时才能使用。

Namely, preparing high concentration of liquid in a container (usually large plastic pot or enamel tub), then placing fish into the container for a certain time and then taking them out so as to kill pathogens on the surface and gills. The immersion time depends on the fish species, drug type, concentration and temperature. This method has the advantage of strong function, high efficacy and saving dosage. The disadvantage is that it cannot be done at any time, and only can be used in case of separating ponds and transfer of ponds.

  ()口服法 

(IV) Oral method

是驯化 养鱼常用的用药方法之一。使用时将药物按饲料的一定比例加入粉料中混合制成颗粒药饵投喂,用于治疗鱼类的内脏病、出血病、竖鳞病等。其优点是疗效较彻底,药物浪费少,节省成本。缺点是对病情较重、吃食不好的鱼没有 作用。 

It is one of the methods commonly used for domesticated fish culture. Drugs are added at a certain percentage to powder particles as bait for the treatment of visceral disease, hemorrhage, vertical scale disease and so on. It is advanced in thorough treatment, less drug waste and less cost. The disadvantage is that it has no effect on the fish with serious disease and bad eating condition.

  ()注射法 

(V) Injection method

多用于 亲鱼的催产和消炎,一般采用胸腔、腹腔、背部肌肉注射。 

It is mainly used for spawning and anti-inflammation for parent fish generally by injection at chest, abdomen and back muscle.

()涂抹法 

(VI) Smear method

用于亲 鱼的伤口消炎,常使用紫药水或碘酊

It is used for wound inflammation of parent fish by using gentian violet or iodine.

二、鱼 池水体的计算

II.     Calculation of Pond Water Volume

  采用全池泼 洒法。用药时必须先准确计算鱼池水体,为此先要测量鱼池的长度、宽度和水深,圆形池塘需测出半径,再依下列公式计算体积。 

All-pond spraying method is adopted. At medication, we must accurately calculate the pond water. Thus, we should first measure the length, width and depth. In case of circular ponds, we should measure the radius and then calculate the volume by the following formula.

鱼池体积(立方米)=长度()X宽度()X平均水深()

Pond volume (m3) = length (meter) * width (m) * average depth (m)

圆形鱼 池水体积()314X(鱼池半 径米)的平方X水深 

Circular pond water volume (m3): 3.14* (pond radius) square * depth

需要说 明的是方形鱼池一般是有坡度的,其横、断面呈梯形,在计算体积时其长度和宽度的测量应以水面至池底的12处为准。 

It should be noted that generally the square pond has a certain slope, and its cross section is trapezoidal. When calculating the volume, its length and width should be measured according to 1/2 of bottom of the pond.

三、用 药量的计算

III.    Calculation of Dosage

  全池泼 洒用药量()=池水 体积(立方米)X用药浓度(ppm)

All-pond spraying method dosage (g) = water volume (cubic meters) * drug concentration (ppm)

浸洗用 药量()=用水量(立方米)X漫洗药 浓度(ppm)

Dipping dosage (g) = amount of water (cubic meters) * impregnant concentration (ppm)

口服药量()=鱼池 载鱼量(千克)X鱼的服 药量(克/千 克体重

Oral dosage (g) = pond fish-containing capacity (kg) * fish medication dosage (g/kg body weight)

混饲配 制浓度()=用药量/(载鱼量X日投饵率)X 100

Preparation concentration of mixed feed (%) = dosage / (fish-containing capacity * daily feeding rate) * 100%

第五节  常用鱼 药种类与配伍禁忌

Section V    Types of Common Fish Medicines and Incompatibility

  一、常 用鱼药种类

I.    Types of common fish medicines

  1)环境 改良剂       以改良 养殖水域环境为目的所使用的药物,包括底质改良剂、 水质改 良剂和生态条件改良剂等,如生石灰、沸石等。

Environment improver: The drugs used to improve the breeding water environment, including sediment improver, water improver and other ecological improvers, such as quicklime, zeolite, etc.

  2)消毒剂  以杀灭 水体中的有害微生物(包括有害原生动物)为目的所使用的药物,如漂白粉、高锰酸钾等。

Disinfectant: drugs used to kill harmful micro-organisms (including harmful protozoa) in water, such as bleaching powder, potassium permanganate and so on.

  3)抗微 生物药       指通过 内服或注射,杀灭或抑制体内病原微生物繁殖、生长的药物,包括抗病毒药、抗细菌药、抗真菌药等,如四环素、复方新诺明等。

Anti-microbial drugs: it refers to drugs orally or by injection to kill or inhibit the reproduction and growth of pathogenic microorganisms, including anti-viral drugs, anti-bacterial drugs, antifungal drugs, such as tetracycline, compound sulfamethoxazole and so on.

  4)杀虫 驱虫药       指通过 药浴或内服,杀死或驱除体外或体内寄生虫的药物以及 杀灭水 体中有害无脊椎动物的药物,包括抗原虫药、抗蠕虫药和抗甲壳动物药等,如 硫酸铜 、敌百虫等。

Pesticides and anthelmintic drugs: it refers to drugs by bath or orally to kill or expel the parasites in vitro or in vivo as well as drugs to kill harmful invertebrates in water, including antiprotozoal drugs, anti-worm drugs and anti-crustacean animal medicines, such as copper sulfate, trichlorfon and so on.

  5)代谢 改善和强壮药  指以改 善养殖对象机体代谢、增强机体体质、病后恢复、 促进生 长为目的而使用的药物。通常以饵料添加剂方式作用,如维 C、磷酸 脂、蛋氨酸 等。

Metabolic improvement and enhancement drugs: it refers to drugs for improving the breeding object metabolism, enhancing the physical body, promoting illness recovery and promoting the growth. They are usually used in the way of food additives, such as vitamin C, phosphate, and methionine and so on.

  6)中草药 指为防 治水产动、植物疾病或改善养殖对象健康为目的而使用的经加工或未经加工的药用植物(或动物),又称天然药物,如大黄、穿心莲等。

Chinese herbal medicines: it refers to processed or raw medicinal plants (or animals) for prevention and control of aquatic animal and plant diseases or improvement of health of breeding objects, and they are also known as natural drugs, such as rhubarb, Andrographis paniculata and so on.

  7)生物 制品    通过生 物化学、生物技术制成的药剂,通常有特殊功用。包括疫苗、免疫激活剂、某些激素、诊断试剂、生物水质净化剂等。

Biological products: it refers to medicament made through biochemistry and biotechnology, usually with special function, including vaccines, immune activation agents, certain hormones, diagnostic reagents, biological water purification agents and so on.

  8)其他     包括抗 氧化剂、麻醉剂、防霉剂、增效剂等用作辅助疗效等药物,如山梨酸、叔丁基对羟基茴香醚等。

Others: including antioxidants, anesthetics, preservatives, synergists and other drugs for secondary effects, such as sorbic acid, tert-butyl hydroxyanisole and so on.

二、常 见渔药配伍禁忌

II.     Common Fish Drug Incompatibility

  在水产 养殖生产过程中,渔药在使用时有安全范围 和协同 、拮抗作用 ,要注 意渔药在使用过程中的配伍禁忌,对于正确用药、提高疗效、减少毒副作用、降低用药成本等十分必要。

In the process of aquaculture production, fish drugs have their safety range and synergy and antagonism function. We should pay attention to fish drug incompatibility, which is vital for right medication, improvement of efficacy, reduction of side effects and reduction of treatment cost.

  药物的 安全范围,指介于最小有效量与最大耐受量之间的范围。良好的药物具有较大的安全范围,在这个范围内,一般剂量增加,作用也增加,但由于药物剂量与水产动物的种类、年龄、健康状况及环境因素(如水温、pH、有机 物含量等)等有关,因此,具体应用时,药物剂量必须在安全范围内灵活掌握。

Drug safety range: it refers to the range between the minimum effective dose and the maximum tolerated dose. Good drugs have a greater safety range, and in this range, the role increases with increase of dose. However, the dose is related with aquatic animal species, age, health status and environmental factors (such as temperature, pH, organic content, etc.) etc.. Therefore, the specific application dose must be within safety limit.

  协同作 用是指两种或两种以上的药物合并使用时,其作用因互相协助而加强。

Synergy refers to strengthening of function due to mutual assistance of two or more drugs.

  拮抗作 用是指两种或两种以上的药物合并使用时,其作用因互相对消而减弱。

Antagonism refers to weakening of function due to mutual cancellation of two or more drugs.

  为了安 全有效使用渔药,在生产中使用渔药有一些配伍禁忌。

For safe and effective use of fish medicine, fish drug incompatibility should be noted in the production.

  生石灰 :不能与漂白粉、鱼康、鱼安、钙、镁、重金属盐类、有机化合物等混合使用。

Quicklime: it can not be mixed with bleaching powder, calcium, magnesium, heavy metallic salts, organic compounds and so on.

  漂白粉 :不能与酸类、福尔马林、生石灰等混用。

Bleaching powder: it can not be mixed with acid, formalin, quicklime and so on.

  高锰酸 钾:与有机物如甘油、酒精等会还原脱色失效; 与甘油 、药用鞣酸研磨时可爆炸, 与氨及 其制剂呈絮状沉淀失效;

Potassium permanganate: it will be deoxidized, decolored and be invalid in case of mixture with organic matters such as glycerin, alcohol and so on; and it may explode in case of mixed with glycerol and medicinal tannic acid, and it may suffer flocculent precipitate in case of mixed with ammonia and its preparations.

  新洁尔 灭:为季铵类表面活性剂。不能与碘、磺化钾、过氧化钠、氧化剂混用;不能与肥皂、洗衣粉等表面活性剂混用。

Bromogeramine: it is quaternary ammonium surfactant. It can not be mixed with iodine, potassium sulfonate, sodium peroxide, oxidizer, soap, detergent and other surfactants.

  碘及其 制剂:与铵水、铵盐类生成爆炸性磺化物;与碱类生成碘酸盐;与重金属 盐类生 成黄色沉淀;与硫代硫酸钠、鞣酸氧化脱色;与生物碱共用会变成蓝色;与龙胆 紫共用 疗效减弱;与挥发油、脂肪油共用会分解失效;与一些呋喃类药物的拮抗作用; 与碱性 药物、抗胆碱药、H2 受体阻 滞剂混用会使本药物的吸收减少。

Iodine and its preparations: they will generate explosive sulfonate in presence of ammonia and ammonium salts, generate iodate in presence of alkali, form yellow precipitate in presence of with heavy metal salts, be oxidized and bleach in presence of sodium thiosulfate and tannic acid, turn blue in presence of alkaloids, be less effective in presence of gentian violet, break down and loss effect in presence of volatile oil and fatty oil, show antagonism in presence of some furan drugs, and be reduced in absorption in presence of basic drugs, anticholinergic drugs and H2 receptor blockers.

  青霉素 :与碱性药液如 ST 注射液 等逐渐失效;与酸性药物如四环素等分解失效;与氧化剂、碘配剂、高锰酸钾、过氧化氢溶液失效;与重金属盐如铜、汞、铅等失效。

Penicillin: it will gradually loss effect in presence of the alkaline liquid such as ST injection, decompose and loss effect in presence of acidic drugs such as tetracycline, oxidant, loss effect in presence of oxidizer, iodine, potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide solution and heavy metal salts such as copper, mercury, lead and so on.

  土霉素 :与中性及碱性溶液沉淀失效。

Oxytetracycline: it will loss effect in presence of neutral and alkaline solution.

  金霉素 :与复方碘溶液沉淀失效。

Chlortetracycline: it will loss effect in presence of compound iodine solution.

  四环素 :与生物碱试验沉淀失效;不能与含氯消毒剂使用;与挥发油、脂肪油共用分解失效:

Tetracycline: it will loss effect in presence of alkaloid; it can not be mixed with chlorine disinfectants; and it will decompose and loss effect in presence of volatile oil and fatty oil.

  硫酸铜 :与氨溶液生成蓝色沉淀;与鞣酸及其制剂生成暗褐色沉淀;与碱性液体生成深蓝色沉淀。

Copper sulphate: it will generate a blue precipitate in presence of ammonia solution, generate dark brown precipitate in presence of tannic acid and its preparations, and generate dark blue precipitate in presence of alkaline liquid.

  11)敌百 虫:不能与碱性药物一起溶解混合使用;溶液长久放置逐渐分解失效; 与阿托 品、磷毒一起使用会产生拮抗作用失效。

Trichlorfon: it can not be mixed with the alkaline solution; after placement for a long time it will gradually decompose and loss effect; and it will loss effect when mixed with atropine and celphos due to antagonism.

第六节  罗非鱼 、胡子鲶常见疾病与防治

Section VI Common Diseases of Tilapia and Clarias Fuscus and the Prevention & Control

  一、罗 非鱼常见疾病及防治

I.    Common diseases of Tilapia and The Prevention & Control

  1、链球 菌病

Streptococcal disease

  发病原 因:因链球菌感染引起。

Etiology: streptococcal infection.

  疾病症 状:患溶血性链球菌病的病鱼从外观看,病鱼体色发黑,眼球突出或混浊发白、出血,病鱼腹部点状出血、鳃盖内侧出血等。患非溶血型链球菌病的病鱼,眼球突出或混浊发白,腹腔有腹水储积,肛门周围发红,肠管弛缓。

Disease symptoms: for diseased fish suffering from hemolytic streptococcus, there will be black body color, exophthalmos, bleeding and spotting bleeding inside the gill cover. Fish suffering from non-hemolytic streptococcus will show exophthalmos, abdominal ascites accumulation, redness around the anus and intestinal atony.

  防治方 法:避免过 密的养殖,加强饲养管理;发病时 用纯二氧化氯0.30.5/立方米 ,全池泼洒消毒;同时投 喂大蒜素,连喂35天。第 五天后用酶合益生素0.50.8/立方米 全池泼洒。

Prevention and control methods: ① to avoid too close breeding and strengthen management; ② to spray pure chlorine dioxide at dosage of 0.3 to 0.5g/cubic meter in the whole pond for disinfection in case of diseases; ③ to feed allicin for 3 to 5 days, and then spray enzyme-added probotics after the fifth day at dosage of 0.5 to 0.8 g/cubic meter in the whole pond .

2、运动 性气单胞菌病

Motile aeromonas disease

  疾病症 状:有肠炎型和体表溃烂型两种不同类型的症状。肠炎型主要表现为肛门红肿,肛门附近的皮肤发红,解剖观察可见肠道无血却发红。体表溃烂型表现为病鱼体表呈斑块状溃烂,并可遍及全身,体表充血,鳞片脱落,肌肉外露, 呈红色斑块状病灶,严重时可溃烂成洞穴状,因此又称溃疡病、溃烂病。

Disease symptoms: it is divided into enteritis type and ulcerated surface type. Enteritis type mainly shows anal swelling, redness of the skin around the anus, intestinal no blood but redness. Ulcerated surface type shows surface patchy ulceration throughout the body, surface congestion, flake off, muscles exposure, red patchy lesion and festering into serious caves. Thus, it is also known as ulcer disease.

  发病原 因:由嗜水气单胞菌感染引起。

Etiology: Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

  防治方 法:用溴氯 海因0.2/立方米 或漂白粉(有效氯含量28%~30%)1/立方米 全池泼洒;隔天一次,连用三次。同时投 喂大蒜素等内服药,效果更佳。

Prevention and control methods: ① spraying the whole pond with Bromochlorodimethylhydantoin at dosage of  0.2 g/cubic meter or bleaching powder (chlorine content 28% ~ 30%) at dosage of 1g /cubic meter once every other day for three times. ② At the same time, feeding allicin and other internal medicine.

  3、假单 胞菌病

Pseudomonas disease

  疾病症 状:外观症状表现为眼球突出或浑浊发白,腹部膨胀。解剖观察,腹腔有腹水贮积。在鳔、肾、脾有白色结节状病灶,鳔腔内有土黄色脓汁贮积,这是典型症状。确诊需借助细菌学或血清学检查。

Symptoms of the disease: the appearance symptoms include exophthalmos and abdominal swelling. According to dissection observation, abdominal ascites exist. In the bladder, kidney and spleen, there are white nodular lesions, and there is yellow pus in bladder cavity. These are typical symptoms. Diagnosis requires the use of bacteriological or serological tests.

  发病原 因:由荧光假单胞菌感染引起。

Etiology:  fluorescence Pseudomonas infection.

  防治方 法:该菌仅 感染不健康的、抗病力弱的罗非鱼,因此要加强饲养管理,保持水质良好,注意环境卫生,操作小心,勿使鱼体受伤;发病鱼用溴氯 海因0.40.5/立方米 全池泼洒;同时投 喂免疫多糖10/千克饲 料,维生素C 5/千克饲 料。

Prevention and control methods: ① this bacteria only infects unhealthy and weak tilapia, so we should strengthen management, maintain good water quality, pay attention to sanitation and be careful in operation so as to prevent fish from injury; ② for sick fish Bromochlorodimethylhydantoin is sprayed at dosage of 0.4 to 0.5 g / cubic meter; ③ at the same time, feeding the immune polysaccharide 10 g / kg feed and vitamin C 5g/kg feed.

  4、爱德 华氏菌病

Edward coli disease

  疾病症 状:病鱼体色发黑,腹部膨大,肛门发红,眼球突出或浑浊发白。此外,有的病鱼体表可见有膨胀发炎的患处,尾鳍、臀鳍的尖端和背鳍的后端坏死发白。解剖观察,有腹水,生殖腺特别是卵巢有出血症状,肠管内有水样物贮积 或肠壁充血。肝、脾、鳔等内脏,特别是肝脏有白色小结节样的病灶,并发出腐臭味。症状和病程因病例不同而有很大差异,有急性和慢性型之分。

Symptoms of the disease: the sick fish show black body color, abdominal swelling, anal redness and exophthalmos. In addition, some diseased fish body surface can show expansion inflammation parts, and the tail fin, anal and dorsal fin suffer necrosis and are white. According to dissection observation, we can see ascites, gonad and especially ovarian bleeding, intestinal water-like material or intestinal congestion. Liver, spleen, bladder and other internal organs, especially liver, have white nodular lesions and smells foul. Symptoms and course of disease are very different due to the different cases, and are divided into acute and chronic type.

  发病原 因:由迟钝爱德华氏菌感染引起。

Etiology:  slow Edward coli infection.

  防治方 法:放养密 度要合理,池塘需清理消毒,经常换注新水;发病时 用漂白粉(有效氯含量28%~30%)1/立方米 全池泼洒消毒;同时内 服大蒜泥(捣碎按5%与饲 料混匀)或大蒜素等药物,每天一次,连用3天。

Prevention and control methods: ① stocking density should be reasonable, and ponds need cleaning and disinfection as  well as fresh water injection; ② spraying the whole pond with bleaching powder (chlorine content 28% ~ 30%) at dosage of 1 g /cubic meter; ③ feeding with garlic orally (mixed with feed at 5%) or allicin and other drugs once a day for 3 days.

  5、罗非 鱼肥胖病

Tilapia obesity

  发病原 因及疾病症状:由于长期投喂低蛋白、高脂肪、高糖类和缺乏维生素的饵料,造成罗非鱼脂肪代谢障碍,脂肪大量贮积,鱼体肥胖,抗病力低下。病鱼呈全身性脂肪细胞增生、脂肪浸润,特别是腹腔的脂肪组织及脏器周围的脂肪 组织显著增加。患鱼腹腔内脂肪组织可达体重的5%~8%,肝 脏淡黄色,肝组织高度脂肪变性,肝细胞萎缩。将整块组织剪下放在水中,必浮在水面上(正常肝脏会立即沉入水底)。患肥胖症鱼抗病能力低,容易感染大肠杆菌和气单胞菌等病菌。

Causes and symptoms of the disease: Long-term feeding of low-protein, high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets lack of vitamins will cause fat metabolism disorders to tilapia so that a lot of fat will accumulate to result in low resistance to disease. Diseased fish suffer systemic fat cell proliferation and fatty infiltration, and particularly abdominal fat tissues and fat tissues around the organs increase significantly. Suffered fish belly cavity fat tissue weight is up to 5% to 8% of the body weight, and liver is yellow, with a high degree of fatty degeneration and liver cell atrophy. If the entire tissue is cut and placed in water, the liver will float at the water (normal liver will immediately sink to the bottom). The suffered fish has low disease resistance capability and are easy to be infected with  Escherichia coli and aeromonas.

  防治方 法:改进饵 料配方,尽量满足罗非鱼正常生长的需要;饵料中适当添加维生素B、维生素C和维生素E,也可 增投一些天然饲料;加强饲 养管理,保持水质清洁新鲜。

Prevention and control methods: ① improving bait formulations to meet the needs of normal growth of tilapia; adding vitamin B, vitamin C and vitamin E and some natural feed to bait; ② strengthening management to keep the water clean and fresh.

  6、车轮 虫病  病原体 是车轮虫属和小车轮属种类,对罗非鱼苗种危害甚大。

Trichodiniasis: the pathogens are trichodina and small trichodina, with great harm on tilapia fry.

  症状: 病鱼的头部和口的周围呈灰白色,体表和鳃部黏液增多,大量感染时,病鱼食欲减退,呼吸困难,离群独游,游动缓慢,如不及时治疗,可造成大批死亡。用显微镜检查,在病鱼体表和鳃上可见到大量车轮虫,像车轮状滚动。

Symptoms: sick fish’s head and parts around the mouth are pale, the body surface and gills have more mucus. In case of a large number of infected fish, diseased fish loss appetite, have difficulty in breathing, solitude, travel independently and swim slowly. If they are not promptly treated, it may result in a large number of deaths. By microscopic examination, the body surface and gills of diseased fish show a lot of trichodina scrolling.

  防治方 法为:用硫酸 铜和硫酸 亚铁合剂全池泼洒,每立方米水体用硫酸铜0.5和硫酸 亚铁0.2,可杀 灭鱼体表和鳃上的车轮虫。每亩( 水深1),用 苦楝树枝叶30千克煮 水全池遍洒,也有较好的效果。

Prevention and control methods: ① spraying copper sulfate at dosage of 0.5 g per cubic meter and ferrous sulfate mixture at dosage of 0.2 g per cubic meter in the whole pond to kill Trichodina on fish surface and gills. ② spraying the whole pond with 30 kg of boiling China tree leaves per mu (1 meter depth) over the entire pond.

  7、指环 虫病

Dactylogyriasis

   病因 :由指环虫属的单殖吸虫寄生于鱼的鳃上引起。

Etiology: autoeciousness of Dactylogyridae Monogenea on the gills of fish.

    症 状:指环虫以锚钩和边缘小钩钩住鳃丝不断运动,造成鳃组织损伤。病鱼鳃部多黏液,鳃丝肿胀,体色发黑,不摄食。此病往往与车轮虫病并发,严重时可使大批奥尼鱼死亡。

Symptoms: Dactylogyridae hooks the gill filaments by grasp and small edge hooks to move constantly, resulting in gill tissue damage. Diseased fish gills show more mucus, gill swelling, black color and failing to feed. The disease is often complicated with trichodiniasis and may cause death of a large number of Tilapia in serious case.

   防治方 法: 0.3毫克/升的晶体敌百虫全池泼 洒,每天1次,连续2天。

Prevention and control Methods: spraying 0.3 mg/l crystal "trichlorfon" to the whole pond once a day for 2 consecutive days.

  8、三代 虫病  病原体 病原体是中型三代虫、细锚三代虫和秀丽三代虫

Gyrodactyliasis: the pathogens are medium, fine and beautiful Gyrodactylus.

  症状: 在成鱼、鱼苗、鱼种体上都可寄生,而对苗种危害很大。患有三代虫的鱼苗种,最初呈现极度不安,时而狂游于水中或急剧侧游于水下,继而食欲不振,游动迟缓,鱼体瘦弱,终致死亡。

Symptoms: They can parasitize adult fish, fry and fish seeds, with great harm to the fish seeds. The fish seeds with Gyrodactyliasis first show extreme anxiety, sometimes madly swim in water or swim at lower water and then loss appetite, swim slowly, become thinner and finally die

  防治方 法为:用晶体敌百虫(90)0.20.3毫克/升全池泼洒。

Prevention and control methods: spraying the whole pond with (90%) 0.2 ~ 0.3 mg /l crystal trichlorfon.

二、胡子鲶常见疾病及防治

II.     Common Diseases of Clarias Fuscus and The Prevention & Control

(一)传染性鱼病防治

(I) Prevention and control of infectious fish diseases

  1、类打印病

Putrid skin disease

  病原体:由细菌感染引起。

Pathogens: bacteria infection.

  症状:表现为皮肤发炎,形成椭圆形溃烂环,最后可形成印斑形。严重时可露出骨胳。

Symptoms: skin inflammation, oval ulcer ring and eventually printed spots. In severe case, bone can be exposed.

  防治方 法:用0.1-0.3ppm呋喃唑酮(痢特灵)全池泼洒。同时内服链霉素药饵,用量每千克鱼2万单位。

Prevention and control methods: spraying 0.1-0.3ppm furazolidone in the whole pond and orally feeding fish with streptomycin bait at dose of 20,000 units per kilogram of fish.

  2、肠炎病

Enteritis

  病原体:为细菌性疾病。

Pathogens: bacterial diseases.

  症状:病鱼表现为腹部膨大,轻压腹部有黄色粘液流出,肛门红肿突出。腹侧有红斑,蛀鳍。解剖可见腹积水,肠充血发炎。

Symptoms: abdominal swelling, yellow mucus out of the abdomen, anal swelling, ventral erythema and borer fins. According to dissection, we can see intestinal congestion and inflammation.

  防治方 法:定期泼洒30-40ppm生石灰,可防止此病发生;治疗每百斤饲料加痢特灵17制成药饵投喂,或百斤料加入大蒜250、食盐250拌料饲料;全池泼洒2-3ppm五倍子。

Prevention and control methods: regularly spraying 30-40ppm quicklime to prevent the disease; in terms of treatment, 17g furazolidone can be added to every 50kg feed as bait, or adding 250g of garlic and 250 g of salt to every 50kg feed; and spraying 2-3ppm gall in the whole pond.

  3、疖疮病

Furunculosis

  病原体:由疖疮点状产气单胞杆菌引起

Pathogens: Aeromonas punctata furuncuLe

  。症状:鱼患部肌肉出现脓疮,其中充满脓汁。

Symptoms: running sore full of pus in affected muscle.

  防治方 法:用1ppm漂白粉或2ppm五倍子全池泼洒可起到防病效果;发病时,全池泼洒药物的同时,用磺胺噻唑拌饵投喂,第一天按百公斤鱼用磺胺噻唑10tmp2,强的松0.6,苏打片10。第2-6天药量减半。

Prevention and control methods: spraying 1ppm bleaching powder or 2ppm gall in the whole pond for disease prevention; in case of disease attack, spraying drugs in the whole pond and at the same time, mixing bait with sulfathiazole to feed fish at dosage of 10g of sulfathiazole, 2g of tmp, 0.6g of prednisone and 10 g of soda tablets per 100kg fish on the first day, and then reducing the dosage to a half for the second to sixth day.

  4、吊颈病

Neck-hanging disease

  病原体:细菌感染引起。

Pathogens: bacteria infection.

  症状:病鱼活动异常,头上尾下垂直不动。鳍充血,腹膨胀,体侧及肠道有时可见圆形出血。

Symptoms: abnormal activity, with head up and tail down vertically and still, fin congestion, abdominal swelling, lateral and intestinal bleeding.

  防治方 法:全池泼洒痢特灵或其他抗菌药物,同时内服药饵,每百公斤鱼用土霉素10tmp2,连喂3-6天。

Prevention and control methods: spraying furazolidone or other antibacterial drugs in the whole pond, and feeding fish with oral drug bait at dosage of 10g of oxytetracycline and 2g of tmp per 100 kg of fish for 3 to 6 days.

(二)寄生虫病防治

(II) Prevention and control of parasitic diseases

  1、车轮 虫病

Trichodiniasis

  病原体:由车轮虫寄生引起。

Pathogens: Trichodina autoeciousness.

  症状:病鱼体色变黑消瘦,池鱼离群独游、旋转,衰竭而死。对病鱼体表镜检可见大量车轮虫。

Symptoms: thin and black body, traveling alone, rotation, failure and death. By microscopic examination, we can see a large number of Trichodina.

  防治方 法:全池泼洒0.7ppm硫酸铜或硫酸铜和硫酸 亚铁(52)合剂,池水体积不易准确测算时,可将药分两份隔24小时再次泼洒,效果不错,且较安全。

Prevention and control methods: spraying 0.7ppm copper sulfate or mixture of copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate (5:2) in the whole pond; when it is difficult to accurately measure water volume, drug can be sprayed every 24 hours for twice to realize good effect and safer result.

  2、鱼波豆虫病

Ichthyobodiasis

  病原体:鱼波豆虫。

Pathogens: Ichthyobodo

  症状:初期无明显症状,严重时体色发黑消瘦,游泳缓慢,呼吸困难,体表出现淡蓝色或蓝灰色粘液层,鳃呈淡红色,表皮充血发炎。

Symptoms: no obvious symptoms in early stage; and in severe case, weight loss, black body color, swimming slowly, breathing difficulty, light blue or blue-gray mucus layer on surface, pale red gills and skin congestion and inflammation.

  防治方 法:0.05%福尔马林浸洗病鱼20-30分钟;同鱼车轮虫治疗方法。

Prevention and control methods: using 0.05% formalin for baptism of diseased fish for 20-30 minutes; and the treatment method is the same as that for Trichodiniasis.

  3、累枝虫病

Epistylis disease  

  病原体:累枝虫寄生引起。

Pathogens: Epistylis autoeciousness.

  症状:病鱼体表及鳍上出现增生性白点,严重时可见寄生部位糜烂,有血斑。

Symptoms: proliferative white spots on body surface and fins, in severe case, erosion of parasitic parts and blood stains.

  防治方 法:同车轮虫防治方法。

Prevention and control methods: the same as that for Trichodiniasis.

  4、粘孢子虫病

Myxosporidiosis

  病原体:粘孢子虫寄生引起。

Pathogens: Myxosporida autoeciousness.

  症状:体表可见白色点状胞囊,鱼体消瘦发黑,活动迟缓。镜检可见胞囊内有大量孢子虫。

Symptoms: white spot cysts on surface, thin and black body, sluggish activity. Microscopic examination shows that there are a lot of sporozoons in the cysts.

  防治方 法:15-30ppm福尔马林浸洗30-60分钟,连续7天。

Prevention and control methods: using 15-30ppm formalin for baptism of diseased fish for 30-60 minutes for 7 days.

  5、三代 虫病

Gyrodactyliasis 

  病原体:三代虫。

Pathogens: Gyrodactylus

  症状:表现为触须卷曲,体色发黑,粘液增多,食欲减退,体瘦而亡。肉眼仔细观察病变部位,可见细毛状虫体在活动。

Symptoms: curling of tentacles, black body color, much mucus, loss of appetite, thin body to death. Through careful observation by the naked eyes, we can see hair-like worms in lesions.

  防治方 法:全池泼洒0.3-0.5ppm的浓度为90%晶体敌百虫。

Prevention and control methods: spraying 0.3-0.5ppm concentration of 90% of crystal trichlorfon in the whole pond.

  6、指环 虫病

Dactylogyriasis 

  病原体:指环虫。

Pathogens: Dactylogyridae

  症状:鳃表面粘液增多,鳃丝暗灰或苍白色,呼吸困难。仔细观察可见白色指环虫在活动。严重时鳃盖张开而亡。

Symptoms: much mucus on gill surface, dark gray or pale gills, shortness of breath. Through careful observation, we can see white Dactylogyridae in it. In severe case, gill cover will open and fish will die.

  防治方 法:同三代虫病的治疗方法

Prevention and control methods: the same as that for Gyrodactyliasis.

 
 
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